Clemens A. Eicher


Since the existence of modern international alliances, governments have competed continuously for positioning in power and/or military structures. This rivalry between the various governments does not take place all over the system only, but on the local or regional level as well. A certain top position in the military or power-political sense can be at disposal. In order to gain, hedge or improve a desired positioning in the mentioned area, the respective government has a range of instruments and effective means at its disposal. When analyzing these effective means enabling governments to get other governments to take or not to take certain actions within their foreign affairs which they would not take of their own free will, we meet with illustrative material which is arranged in varying groups. Within the scope of the following exposition only that part of this illustrative material is to be filtered out and dealt with, which works with threat and/or application of means of enforcement and violence. In order to do justice to reality, the author has decided to consider national terrorism directed to the exterior and terrorism actively supported by governments as well, although their employment violates classic international law. Here one can summarize with good reason that governments undoubtedly employ terrorism as an instrument, too, in order to safeguard their interests within the scope of foreign affairs. Indirect and direct application of means of enforcement and violence is still considered appropriate, whenever own interests are to be pursued and pushed through within the scope of foreign affairs. This is a fact, and it is by no means impaired by the immense and chaotic stock of standards and regulations concerning the settlement of conflicts between nations of the modern system of states. On the contrary, the institutionalized variation of conflict settlement - international regimes - between states is only preferred, if the regulations for settlement are to their own advantage, or if the potential of pressure or violence is too low.