In this essay aspects of the modifications of the art of war are examined, which are to be verified in the course of the dynamic further development of Russian military science. Besides, experiences and cognitions of the armed forces as well as development tendencies of strategic and operational thought are addressed. The results of scientific-technological progress have decisive influence on the development of the art of war. New means for the use violence are being developed, which in turn influence the capabilities, the existence of troops, and the organisational structures of military forces and means. Here the art of war deals with the changes of the political, economic and military situation, both in the immediate operation area and on other theatres of war. In this context, conceptions are updated, weapon systems developed, and forms and operational principles for the troops corrected, which correspond to the challenges of time. The object is to adjust to possible crises, to react to conflicts, and to contribute to a rapid settlement of a conflict. Now the art of war in the Russian Federation is in a phase of evolution, searching new ways towards the solution of present and future challenges, especially the complex capability to defend the Russian Federation and its partners. An active part is done by the Russian general staff, especially by its academic educational institutions, the General Staff Academy, as well as other research institutions of the Russian Federation. Here, the special objective is to combine military and civil instruments in an anticipatory and sustainable way so that – given the possible crises and conflict spots - they become capable of acting effectually and in good time. At the same time, these forces decisively contribute to peacekeeping. Likewise, they are ready to preserve and even defend vigorously both their own and their partners’ national security. In consideration of responsibility and obligation of the armed forces, strategy, operational art and tactics are approaching a trend shift – in order to develop new means and methods of armed combat. These include armed forces capabilities to effectively prevent an aggression, to ward off an attack, to develop military operations in the conditions of the global cyber and information space, to use new weapons, and to apply unconventional forms and methods in armed combat. Scientists from areas such as natural sciences, chronicle, political science, public international law, economic science, etc. can effectively contribute to the development of military and non-military resources. With long-range research and development programs, implementing new structures and equipment, solutions for eliminating the well-known vulnerabilities in the Russian armed forces are developed. The focal concentration of political and military command and control on the scientific and military-industrial potential, with clear and necessary priorities, will let research and development as well as military science of the Russian Federation become a vital factor. So one can detect a tendency towards an expectant and ambitious policy of the Russian Federation, which ought to accept the Western Alliance in order to be able to meet on an equal footing.